Nxt walking robot designs
Obstacle avoidance is one of the most important aspects of the robotics world. Without having a way to avoid obstacles, robots would be very limited in what they could do, especially those that rely on a program that requires them to navigate around or to a specific location.
For instance, if a robot was programmed to move from point A to point B and had no way of detecting obstacles so that it can avoid it, that robot would not be able to get to its location if the path to the designated location was not a straight line with no obstacles in its way.
The robot will eventually run into an obstacle and will continue to try to move against it because it could not detect the obstacle in its path. With a way to avoid obstacles, robots would have a better navigations system and be able to traverse obstacles with ease. Detectors such as touch or light sensors help robots to detect obstacles.
Through the use of programs, the robot can be directed to move in a number of ways around the obstacle to avoid it once it is detected. The robot could be programmed to reverse and then turn to find a different path or simply turn left or right as soon as the obstacle is detected.
Using the light sensor, the robot can detect lines on the floor that it can either avoid or can be programmed to follow. The line can be laid out in a path and once the robot picks up the dark line, it can be programmed to follow it without leaving its path.
Task planning and navigation refers to the programming of the robot and how it goes about performing its assigned tasks and how it is able to navigate itself around its environment and be able to avoid obstacles to avoid collisions to be able to continue to function properly.
The navigations system of the robot is very important. If a robot is not able to move around in its environment with ease and avoid obstacles then it will not be able to complete its task properly. Task planning is also important as it lays out the order in which a robot will complete its tasks. Task planning can range from plotting out tasks in a routine order or branch off into different decision making paths.
For instance if a robot is programmed to go straight until it either hits an obstacle or detects a dark line on its path, it can be programmed to do many tasks depending on the programmer. Not only does task planning have to do with decision making for the robot, but it also controls loops that the robot will perform upon meeting specific requirements.
Task planning is important because it keeps the robot in check to make sure that it performs all of its tasks as desired. A robot that isn't able to plan out its tasks properly would just go about performing random tasks as it sees fit and may be completely undesirable to the way the programmer wants the robot to perform.
A robot navigates around its environment using sensors to detect whether it is too close to an object to avoid a collision. This is only one type of sensor that a robot may use to avoid collisions. Other sensors include light sensors that a robot may use to follow a specified path drawn out on the floor. For instance, the robots light sensor can be programmed to pick up the dark colors. Once the sensor picks up a dark color, which can be a black line on the floor, the robot will navigate itself to follow that line.
This can be used to program the robot to follow a specific laid out path. Touch sensors can be used to help a robot avoid collisions with obstacles and walls. The robot can be programmed to move around in its environment freely, once it bumps or runs into an obstacle, the touch sensor will activate and depending on how the robot is programmed, it will back up and plot out a new path until it runs into another obstacle.
Self-Localisation is the ability of an autonomous robot to estimate its position while moving about its environment. Self-Localisation implies measurement with respect to a certain coordinate frame: The coordinate frame itself, though, is not of fundamental importance: Path Planning is used to determine a route from one coordinate location to another along a set of waypoints. For example, if you had an image of a maze and you needed to determine the best path from where the robot is currently located to where it needs to be you would use Path Planning to determine the shortest or best path to the desired location.
Map-Building is when a robot generates a map of the environment using sensor information, while localizing itself relative to the map.
This is especially challenging because for localization the robot needs to know where the features are, whereas for map-building the robot needs to know where it is on the map.
In addition, there are inherent uncertainties in discerning the robot's relative movement from its various sensors. Vision systems are generally used in manufacturing companies to perform simple tasks such as counting objects that pass by on a conveyor belt, reading serial numbers or searching for surface defects. These tasks are simple programs that work through the use of a camera installed on the robot and are detected after the object is scanned.
A robot does not process images the same way a human does. While humans can rely on inference systems and assumptions, computing devices must see by examining individual pixels of images, processing them and attempting to develop conclusions with the assistance of knowledge bases and features such as pattern recognition engines. Machine vision and computer vision systems are capable of processing images consistently, but computer-based image processing systems are typically designed to perform single, repetitive tasks.
The applications of machine vision MV are diverse, covering areas including, but not limited to:. A knowledge based vision system would allow a robot to make inferences and assumptions. The robot would be able to identify an object and then be able to determine if that object were to be dangerous or not. The robot would first be given a list of objects to identify. Using its knowledge system, the robot would use the web to find images of the items it was given to find.
Once it finds and identifies all of the objects, the robot will start on its search for the objects. Not only are the vision sensors an essential part in this process but the motion controls must also be functioning. The robot must be able to move and traverse through obstacles to be able to find its objects. A knowledge-based vision system in turn links to the artificial intelligence of a robot.
To be able to create a fully functional android, the robot must have a working artificial intelligence and a working knowledge based visions system. Not only will the android be able to think on its own, it will be able to view the world as a human does.
Whatever the robot sees, it will be able to make its own assumptions and own perceptions of its surrounding and the objects that it identifies. SRVC is a research competition that is designed to push the state of the art in image understanding and automatic acquisition of knowledge from large unstructured databases of images such as those generally found on the web.
In this competition, fully autonomous robots receive a text list of objects that they are to find. They use the web to automatically find image examples of those objects in order to learn visual models. These visual models are then used to identify the objects in the robot's cameras. Artificial Intelligence is the area of computer science focusing on creating machines that can engage on behaviors that humans consider intelligent. The ability to create intelligent machines has intrigued humans since ancient times, and today with the advent of the computer and 50 years of research into AI programming techniques, the dream of smart machines is becoming a reality.
Artificial Intelligence can be described as the mind of a robot. It is their ability to learn, reason, solve problems, perceive, and how understand everything around them. You can build a robot and program it to do certain tasks but it will not be intelligent. That robot will perform only those tasks in which it was programmed to do in a continuous loop.
If you programmed the robot to pick up a box in a specific location and move it to another destination and you were to move the box at the starting destination not too far away from where it is supposed to be, the robot will not be able to process in its mind that the box has moved.
It will register that the box is not there so it will halt what it was programmed to do until the box is back where it is supposed to be. That robot may be able to move and do what it is programmed to do but without an artificial intelligence, it will not be able to learn or perceive the changes in the environment around it. One of the main challenges today is implementing an advanced artificial intelligence into a robot.
Although robots may only be able to perform tasks that they are programmed to do, one day, the creation of an artificial intelligence will allows robots to learn and think just as humans do. Not only will these robots be able to perform tasks that they have been programmed to do, they will be able to adapt to their environments and situations, learn, reason, solve problems, and even be able to process and understand language. Robots will one day be able to think and act like humans and even be able to interact and communicate with us as well.
When most people think of artificial intelligence and its use in robots, the most common image that will pop up is the image of a humanoid robot.
This image of the robot is of one that can talk and think like a human being and is capable of making its own decisions. Although this is one way that artificial intelligence can be implemented in robots, it is not the only way. Artificial intelligence can be used for more than just androids.
If implemented into a machine that has the task of monitoring something, that machine will be able to perform its task more efficiently and will be able to do more than just simple tasks. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world.
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